|India Seven Years War Campaign
The use of this basic campaign system is as detailed in the Battles of the ACW source book. Some mechanisms have been borrowed from the Jacobite source books and others are my own inventions.
Basic Manoeuvre Units:
Each basic manoeuvre unit in the campaign is under the command of a named leader. The size of a unit may be any size from Brigade to Army. Scouting units are the exception to this rule; they may be composed of a 1SP SKO unit only and do not need a leader.
The entire campaign will last from 1756 to 1764. Individual campaign modules have a specific length detailed in each scenario. Each campaign year consists of 10 turns. Each turn represents 1 month (2 months in winter) or 2 weeks, dependent upon the scenario. In some theatres there are two months in each year, which are designated winter months (monsoon in India). In these months the Armies will go into quarters and no actions will take place, except for replacement of casualties and allocation of reinforcements.
Locations & Lines:
City / Location boxes are connected by Transportation Lines. Transportation Lines may be Road (marked in Grey), Mountain Road (marked in Red) or River (marked in Blue). City boxes may also be marked as Ports and may contain Fortifications. Boxes containing fortifications are as noted in each scenario. These may be permanent fortifications or fieldworks.
Manoeuvre units may move 1 box per move using road lines and 2 boxes using friendly river lines. Cavalry only units may move 2 boxes per move using road lines. Units may be moved from port to port if the sea route is friendly. Units may use 1 march per move in order to fortify with earthworks.
Scouting and Intelligence:
Manoeuvre units may gather fragmentary intelligence reports only, at a range of 1 box. Scouting units may gather fragmentary, complete or detailed reports at a range of two boxes. Roll one die per move 1,2,3 a fragmentary report will reveal the total number of SPs. 4,5 a complete report will reveal the number of SPs broken down into Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery. 6 a detailed report will reveal the entire Order of Battle.
Manoeuvre units must be in supply to avoid attrition. A supply line must be traced through friendly boxes back to a supply source. All supply source boxes are named in each scenario. Manoeuvre units can break an enemy supply line. Scouting units may not break an enemy supply line.
The number of daylight hours is dependent upon the time of year.
Field battles occur when both sides accept battle for the same location box. Battles begin at dawn plus the roll of one die (in hours). Eg. Dawn 5AM, die roll 4, therefore the first move is 9AM.
Sieges occur when a manoeuvre unit moves into a fortress box which is occupied by an enemy garrison. If there are enemy manoeuvre units also in the fortress box, then the owner of the garrison may elect to fight a field battle, place the manoeuvre unit in the fortress and accept a siege or retreat the manoeuvre unit along a friendly transportation line. Sieges may be resolved on the table-top or by using the siege resolution chart.
After a battle, some casualties may be returned to their units. If both sides are in possession of the battlefield at the end of the battle then both sides recover two thirds of their casualties.
If one side retreats with a rearguard it recovers one half of its casualties. The victorious side recovers two thirds of its infantry and cavalry casualties and all of its artillery casualties.
If there is no rearguard then the retreating army recovers one third of its infantry and cavalry and none of its artillery.
A rearguard must be intact and neither routed nor exhausted and equal to at least one quarter of the armys original formed troop stands.
In some scenarios, there may be special conditions applied to casualty replacement, for instance, campaigning in disease-ridden areas such as the Caribbean, Ukraine or India in the Summer months.
The British January 1756.
Force at Fort William, Calcutta. OiC Major Carnac, (CC)
Force at Fort George, Madras. OiC Lt. Col Stringer-Lawrence, (AC). 2iC Major Forde, (CC)
Force at Bombay. OiC Lt. Col Clive. (AC)
Force at Trichinopoly. OiC Cpt. Caillaud. CC.
Force at Arcot. OiC Yusuf Khan. CC.
Fort St. David
Reinforcements by Sea
The following units are available at any friendly port.
The following units are carried by the British RN fleet and may be landed to support a friendly force.
The French. January 1756.
Force at Pondicherry. OiC Marquis DAuteuil, (CC)
Force at Nellore. OiC Marquis De Conflans, (AC)
Force at Hyderabad. OiC Marquis De Bussy, (CC)
Force at Patna. OiC Monsieur Law, (CC)
Fort DOrleans, Chandernagore
Negapatnam - (Neutral)
Reinforcements by Sea:
The following units are available at any friendly port.
The following units are carried by the French fleet and may be landed to support a friendly force.
If either commander has influence at the following locations, a percentage of troops may be recruited as allies. Roll a D6 in order to influence the leader, a 6 will suffice. Roll a D6 in order to determine how many men that leader will bring as allies, 1,2 none, 3,4 half, 5,6 all. Each Campaign turn, roll a D6, on a roll of 1 or 2 the Native Leader will stop at his current location, on a roll of 3 or 4 the Native Leaders troops will disperse.
When a force of Europeans is in the same location for more than 2 Campaign Turns, the owning commander may attempt to woo the local Poligar. If successful, the Europeans add his native forces to their army. The total number of these troops is decided by adding 1D6 where each pip is 4SP. The composition of this contingent is made up using the typical army list for their nationality. Each Campaign turn thereafter, roll a D6, that number of SPs drift away.
I would suggest using the Summarised Campaign Rules and either an umpire or common sense when required.
The following is intended to be an aid to players who wish to either fight the battles described or play the campaign system.
India can be described roughly as divided into two halves by the regional monsoon patterns.
The North of the sub-continent is bordered by the Himalaya Mountains which form a natural barrier to the rest of Asia. The smaller Vindhya Mountains separate Gujerat from the Mahratta States. Beyond these mountains is to be found the Great Indian Desert. Two more ranges of significant hills run down the West and East of the country, these are known as the Western and Eastern Ghats. Several unfordable rivers cross the country, however at the time few of these were suitable for deep draught vessels. Hills, such as in the case of Wandiwash, often possessed cliff faces or extremely rocky sides. The Red Hill near to Pondicherry is an area of sand dunes and valleys, predominately red -brown in colour.
All areas of woods are to be considered open woods and will allow the passage of infantry with some small measure of disorder. The cultivated groves of mangos and tamarinds and all areas of jungle should be treated as dense woods, which provide good cover to infantry but will impose significant movement penalties. It should be noted that some of these groves ( eg. Plassey ) were surrounded by thick earthen banks.
The water tanks which were, and still are, an important feature of the Indian agriculture system may have been dry at the time of the battle. The monsoon rains would be the only source of water for most of these reservoirs. These tanks were invariably surrounded by thick banks of earth.
Rice paddy fields were not usually of the wet variety found in south east Asia. Most of the Indian varieties of rice growing happily in quite dry soil. Indian maize fields such as the one at Condore grew taller than a man and will obviously conceal troops behind, or in, them. Adobe buildings are universally to be found in villages and towns, as are pagodas, temples and mosques. Many religious chortens and statues decorate roadsides near to centres of habitation.
Most of the forts in India were mud walled interspersed with towers of varying designs. The better of these forts were strong enough to mount cannon on their ramparts. Any forts held by a European power for a reasonable length of time could have been improved with the addition of one or more earthern redoubts or bastions of European design and earthen fause bray may have been dug around the perimeter. Some forts were of stout stone or brick construction, such as the multi walled fortress at Agra. The European built forts such as Fort St. George, Fort William and Pondicherry were of typical simplified Vauban style. Other forts were built on naturally strong features such as the rock forts at Permacoil and Trichinopoly. Many of the smaller forts, and Pondicherry in particular, possessed an encircling thorny bound hedge.
One final point, most of the battles in this campaign were fought on flat plains. These were not dry dust bowls as is usually thought of by westerners, but either a mixture of sandy soil and grassland for the Bengal theatre, or lush grassland and vegetation for the South of the country.