Organ Building in New Zealand 1895-1930: A Documentation of Cultural Context

Contents and Conclusions to Parts II & III

 

  

  

  

 New Zealand Organ Manufactory

Workshop

Testimonials

Press Excerpts

List of Tunings

List of Contracts

Items for sale

Bi-monthly newsletter

 

Dr Ron Newton

Recitals

Organa Cantuariensia

Thesis

 

New Zealand Organ Museum

 

Oamaru's Historic Quarter

 

  

 

ORGAN BUILDING IN NEW ZEALAND

1895 - 1930:

A DOCUMENTATION OF CULTURAL CONTEXT


PART II


AESTHETIC BACKGROUND IN NEW ZEALAND


 

CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER                                                                                                                             PAGE

       1.         Two Case Studies: W. H. Jude and H. R. Haweis . . . . . . . . . . . .                      111

                           W. H. Jude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              111

                           H. R. Haweis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              118

       2.         Cultural Developments in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        123

       3.         Aesthetic Worship in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         133

                           The Aesthetic Worship Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        133

                                 (1) Gothic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          138

                                 (2) Light and Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           142

                                 (3) Gesamtkunstwerk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       144

       4.         Denominational Developments in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . .                      151

                           Catholic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            151

                           Anglican Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            155

                           Methodist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          159

                           Presbyterian Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          166

                                 (1) The Introduction of Instrumental Music . . . . . . . . . .                     178

(2) Documents relating to Presbyterian Worship and

                                      the Introduction of Instrumental Music . . . . . . . . . .                       198

                           Baptist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            209

                           Congregationalist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         209

                           Transcendentalist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         209

       5.         The Role of the Clergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            213

                           The Role of the Clergy in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . .                      213

                           The Role of the Clergy in Organ Building . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        221

       6.         The Role of the Choir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              229

                           The Position of the Choir in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . .                      232

                           The Role of the Choir in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . .                      238

                           Other Activities of the Choir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          242

                           The Role of the Choir in Organ Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       246

       7.         The Role of the Organ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             257

                           The Role of the Organ in Aesthetic Culture . . . . . . . . . . . .                       257

                           The Role of the Organ in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . .                       258

       8.         The Role of the Organist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             275

                           The Role of the Organist in Aesthetic Culture . . . . . . . . . .                       275

                           The Role of the Organist in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . .                     277

                           The Impact of the Pipe Organ on the Organist . . . . . . . . . .                      282

                           Organists' Salaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            289

                           The Role of the Organist in Organ Building . . . . . . . . . . . .                      290

                           Some Important Organists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          293

                                 (1) Thomas Tallis Trimnell (1827-1897) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       293

                                 (2) Robert Parker (1847-1936) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        294

                                 (3) Jesse Timson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             298

                                 (4) John Maughan Barnett (1867-1938) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      301

                                 (5) John Christopher Bradshaw (1876-1950) . . . . . . . . . .                     320

                                 (6) William Herbert Jude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         324

                                 (7) Alfred Hollins (1865-1942) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         324

                                 (8) Edwin Henry Lemare (1866-1934) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      324

       9.         The Role of the Church Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          329

                           Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              331

                           Fund Raising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             335

     10.         The Role of the Philanthropist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          341

                           New Zealand Philanthropists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        341

                           Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        349

                           Carnegie Donations to Organ Funds in New Zealand . . . .                    363

     11.         The Role of the Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             365

                           The Role of the Press in Aesthetic Culture . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       365

                           The Role of the Press in Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . .                       368

                           The Role of the Press in Organ Building . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      372

                  CONCLUSION TO PART II                                                                                377

 

CONCLUSION TO PART II

 

                  The aesthetic awareness apparent in New Zealand by the 1890s facilitated the reception of popular forms of transcendentalism. Secular and religious sources pertaining to choirs and organs demonstrate such perceptions of music and organs, particularly in the confusion of aesthetics with morality and spirituality.

                  The features of Protestant aesthetic worship described in part I are much in evidence in New Zealand, such as the extensive adoption of the worship platform, choirs, organs, professional organists, Gothic architecture, coloured windows and stencilled designs, and the decline of preaching.

                  The Catholics continued their reinforcement of classicist directives, and the Anglicans their Catholic-minded compromise. Although Methodists emphasised the significance of the choir in their writings, and Presbyterians the transcendence of music, the adoption of aesthetic worship and pipe organs in New Zealand became uniform and widespread throughout both Protestant and transcendentalist groups. Clergy, choirs, organists and committees within each denomination, as well as external elements such as philanthropists and the media, actively promoted transcendental ideals, aesthetic worship and pipe organs.

                  The late nineteenth-century organ lent itself to integration into aesthetic worship. Commonly reported features of organs, such as appearance, sound, action and touch, were primarily related not to musical contexts (such as the instrument's suitablity for the performance of standard organ repertoire), but to other aspects of aesthetic worship and its cultural contexts. Thus the visual aspects of the organ were not related to its construction but to elements of the aesthetic worship interior; the selection of aesthetic ranks, like the choice of Gothic features, stencilled designs and colours, was unsystematic and diverse; stop jambs were angled and composition pedals added to facilitate aesthetic effects; consoles were detached, not for organists to hear themselves better, but so they might be more closely related to the choir; and the touch of the keys was related to the piano.

 

 

ORGAN BUILDING IN NEW ZEALAND

1895 - 1930:

A DOCUMENTATION OF CULTURAL CONTEXT

 

PART III

 

TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXTS

 

CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER                                                                                                                             PAGE

PART III             TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXTS

       1.        Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               383

                            Economics to 1895 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           384

                            Economics 1895-1915 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           386

                            Economics 1915-1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           391

                            Economics 1925-1929 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           391

       2.        The Impact of the First World War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         393

                            War Memorial Organs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          400

       3.        Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               405

                            Rail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               405

                            Sea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                406

       4.        Training of Organ Builders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          409

                            Amateurism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            410

                            Trade Suppliers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            415

                            Pioneering Spirit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            416

       5.        Suppliers to the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             417

                            Complete Organs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           418

                            Hydraulic Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           419

                            Electric Blowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            425

                            Metal Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             427

                            Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               435

                            Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              436

                            August Laukhuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           439

       6.        Customs and Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            443

                            Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              443

                            Customs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              444

                  CONCLUSION TO PART III                                                                                447

 

CONCLUSION TO PART III

 

        The continual development of aesthetic awareness during the recession of the 1880s and early 1890s led from 1895 to an expansion of cultural expression, resulting in a demand for pipe organs; the continual development of industrialisation from 1850 led to the expansion of cheap information, transport, freight, and materials, resulting in the ready availability of first-class pipe organ materials. Such was the demand for organs and the availability of materials and information, that those who took advantage of the situation did not require a first-class professional training to do so. The situation was further encouraged by the protection of trade tariffs, and the increasing availability of reliable water and electricity supplies.

        With the advent of labour and inflationary problems due to the War, most organ builders were unable to continue as before, and those who did faced increased competition from overseas interests.