Organ Building in New Zealand 1895-1930: A Documentation of Cultural Context

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ORGAN BUILDING IN NEW ZEALAND 1895 - 1930:


A DOCUMENTATION OF CULTURAL CONTEXT


_________________________________________


A Thesis

submitted in partial fulfilment

of the requirements for the Degree

of

Doctor of Philosophy in Music

in the

University of Canterbury

by

R. G. Newton


_____________


University of Canterbury


1996



CONTENTS

CHAPTER                                                                                                                             PAGE

VOLUME ONE

                  ABSTRACT                                                                                                                  9

                  PREFACE                                                                                                                   11

PART I                AESTHETIC BACKGROUND IN EUROPE AND BRITAIN

       1.        Romanticism in Germany and Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          21

       2.        Cultural Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             35

       3.        Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              57

       4.        Denominational Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           85

                  CONCLUSION TO PART I                                                                                   105


PART II              AESTHETIC BACKGROUND IN NEW ZEALAND

       1.        Two Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             111

       2.        Aesthetic Culture in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         123

       3.        Aesthetic Worship in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          133

       4.        Denominational Developments in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     151

       5.        The Role of the Clergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             213

       6.        The Role of the Choir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               229

       7.        The Role of the Organ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             257

       8.        The Role of the Organist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             275

       9.        The Role of the Church Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          329

     10.        The Role of the Philanthropist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           341

     11.        The Role of the Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             365

                  CONCLUSION TO PART II                                                                                 377


PART III             TECHNOLOGICAL CONTEXTS

       1.        Economics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               383

       2.        The Impact of the First World War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           393

       3.        Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               405

       4.        Training of Organ Builders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            409

       5.        Suppliers to the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             417

       6.        Customs and Shipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            443

                  CONCLUSION TO PART III                                                                                447


PART IV             ORGAN BUILDERS IN NEW ZEALAND 1895-1930

       1.        Life and Work of Edgar H. Jenkins (1836-1924) . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        457

       2.        Life and Work of Christopher Farrell (1838-1918) . . . . . . . . . . .                        501

       3.        Life and Work of William F. Willmette (1825-1911) . . . . . . . . . .                       509

       4.        Life and Work of Frederick W. Sandford (1852-1941) . . . . . . . . .                     517

       5.        Life and Work of George M. Sandford (1861-1935) . . . . . . . . . .                        539

       6.        Life and Work of the Litolff Brothers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         553

       7.        Life and Work of Nicholas T. Pearce (1852-1931) . . . . . . . . . . . .                       557

       8.        Life and Work of George Croft (1872-1955) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         597

       9.        Life and Work of Alfred Brake (1858-1945) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         655

     10.        Life and Work of Charles B. Johnson (1858-1940) . . . . . . . . . . .                        705

     11.        Life and Work of Arthur Hobday (1851-1912) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        709

     12.        Life and Work of Arthur A. Hobday (1880-1970) . . . . . . . . . . . .                       831

     13.        Life and Work of Alfred H. Hathaway (1859-1942) . . . . . . . . . .                       861

     14.        Life and Work of Herbert Brett (1870-1953) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        873

     15.        Work of Norman & Beard in New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        895

     16.        Life and Work of Harry A. Tustin (1881-1951) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        909

     17.        Life and Work of Donald S. Osborne (1890-1970) . . . . . . . . . . .                        917

     18.        Life and Work of Edward Alden (1885-1961) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        931

     19.        Life and Work of Hugh P. H. Herapath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         935

     20.        Miscellaneous Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             939

                  CONCLUSION                                                                                                       949

                  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                    955

                  REFERENCES                                                                                                         957

                  MAPS                                                                                                                       981


VOLUME TWO

PART V              ORGANA NOVAE ZELANDIAE: ORGANS BUILT IN NEW ZEALAND 1895-1930 - A DOCUMENTATION

¶Contents to part V is numbered separately and appears in volume two.



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS


CHAPTER                                                                                                                             PAGE

PART II              AESTHETIC BACKGROUND IN NEW ZEALAND

Aesthetic Worship in New Zealand

       1.        Timaru Presbyterian Chalmers c.1907 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        134

       2.        New Plymouth Methodist before 1898 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         135

       3.        New Plymouth Methodist Whiteley Memorial in 1900 . . . . . . . .                     135

       4.        Balmoral Baptist before 1924 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            137

       5.        The First Church of Otago in 1912 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          138

       6.        A View of the Interior of First Church in 1912. . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         139

       7.        Christchurch Baptist Oxford Terrace in 1910 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        141

       8.        Dunedin Presbyterian Knox in 1896 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         148

Denominational Developments in New Zealand

       9.        Rev. J. Watt and family outside Waiau Presbyterian . . . . . . . . . .                     207

     10.        Interior of Temple of Truth c.1895 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          211

The Role of the Choir

     11.        Auckland Methodist Pitt Street before 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        235

     12.        Epsom Methodist in 1911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           236

     13.        Hastings Methodist Choir in 1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           239

     14.        Nelson Methodist Choir in 1891 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          241

     15.        Greymouth Methodist Choir c.1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         247

The Role of the Organist

     16.        John Maughan Barnett in 1906 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           308


PART IV  ORGAN BUILDERS IN NEW ZEALAND 1895-1930

Life and Work of Edgar H. Jenkins

     17.        Edgar Jenkins in middle age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          456

     18.        Christchurch Anglican Cathedral (Hill & Son) in 1904 . . . . . . . .                     487

     19.        Palmerston North Presbyterian St. Andrew's (Halmshaw) 1907 .                   489

     20.        Letter 1911 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               493

Life and Work of Christopher Farrell

     21.        Christopher Farrell in middle age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         500

Life and Work of Frederick W. Sandford

     22.        Frederick Sandford in middle age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          516

     23.        Major Sandford in old age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            536

Life and Work of George M. Sandford

     24.        Lyttelton West Anglican St. Saviour's (Sandford 1885) . . . . . . . .                     540

Life and Work of Nicholas T. Pearce

     25.        Letterhead 1906 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              568

     26.        Letterhead after 1907 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             572

     27.        Advertisement for "Orgoblo" 1927 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          589

     28.        Temuka Anglican St. Peter's (Sandford & Sandford 1888) . . . . .                     590

Life and Work of George Croft

     29.        Napier Anglican Cathedral St. John's II (Dodd 1907) . . . . . . . . .                      623

     30.        1926 Specification for Epsom Presbyterian II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        644

Life and Work of Alfred Brake

     31.        Alfred Brake as a young man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           654

     32.        Alfred Brake in middle age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            666

     33.        Henry Bevington chamber organ c.1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        669

     34.        Advertisement for Positive organs 1916 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        686

Life and Work of Arthur Hobday

     35.        Arthur Hobday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               708

     36.        E. Hobday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                710

     37.        Grace Hobday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               711

     38.        Joseph S. Hobday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             712

     39.        Fincham & Hobday c.1892 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            738

     40.        Fincham & Hobday brochure 1894 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         749

     41.        Page from Nelson Catholic specification 1894 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      754

     42.        Wellington Anglican St. Mark's (Halmshaw) c.1950 . . . . . . . . . .                      760

     43.        Wellington Methodist Sydney Street c.1900 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        806

     44.        Interior of Sydney Street factory c.1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          807

     45.        Advertisement for Positive organs 1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        808

     46.        Advertisement for Hobday organs 1908 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        818

Life and Work of Arthur A. Hobday

     47.        Letterhead c.1913 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              835

     48.        Letterhead c.1914 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                              838

Life and Work of Alfred H. Hathaway

     49.        Alfred and Rosina Hathaway c.1905 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        862

Life and Work of Herbert Brett

     50.        Herbert Brett as a young man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            874

     51.        Brett at work on the International Exhibition organ 1906 . . . . . .                     881

     52.        Case front in factory Christchurch Methodist Durham Street

                            (Ingram 1907) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             882

     53.        Business card c.1909 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             885

     54.        Herbert and Alice Brett in middle age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         890

Work of Norman & Beard in New Zealand

     55.        Invercargill Anglican St. John's II (Norman & Beard 1904) in

                            north-east transept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          896

Life and Work of Donald S. Osborne

     56.        Feilding Anglican St. John's (Lawton 1922) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       921

     57.        Donald and Mildred Osborne 1928 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         928


VOLUME TWO

PART V              ORGANA NOVAE ZEALANDIAE: ORGANS BUILT IN NEW ZEALAND 1895-1930 - A DOCUMENTATION

¶Illustrations to part V is numbered separately and appears in volume two.



ABSTRACT


        The flourishing of organ building in New Zealand from 1895 onwards is due as much to cultural developments in Europe and Britain as it is to economic changes here. By examining perceptions of music and the organ in nineteenth-century secular and religious sources, it is possible to demonstrate the influence of German transcendentalism and the concept of Gesamtkunstwerk on the demand for pipe organs in New Zealand churches (particularly in Protestant denominations), as part of a wider movement in Christian worship defined here as "aesthetic worship." The role of choirs, organists and others as facilitators in this movement is addressed, as are other cultural, historical, economic and technological contexts. Together, they assist in the construction of a new set of criteria for better understanding the organ of the period, and give a unique insight into the relationship of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century aesthetics and technology.

        In this thesis, the first to treat the subject, all 140 organs built in New Zealand between 1895 and 1930, and the lives of twenty of their builders, are substantially documented with specifications, transcriptions, and some photographs. The close reading of extensive primary sources available from religious and secular archives (from which the documentations are obtained) and substantial secondary sources, leads to a greater understanding of the cultural contexts of organ building than is otherwise possible.



PREFACE


But now at length a hardy band appears,

Of western life the chosen pioneers.

And soon arousing from her sloth supine

She takes her place among the nations of the world to shine.

- Thompson, Zealandia. Footnote

        After a half-century of slow and sometimes painful progress, New Zealand in the period from the 1890s to the First World War stood revealed as a nation of cultural (Alfred Hill), scientific (Ernest Rutherford) and social (Kate Sheppard) accomplishment. It was a country in which various British and European ideas and movements of the previous century found easy ground for establishment, and gained much influence.

        It was also a time in which the romantic movement found its fullest expression in this country and the resulting aesthetic awareness came to have a significant bearing on the everyday life of the middle classes. This new consideration in New Zealand culture gained a foothold in both secular and religious fields, and the study of Christian worship and such events as the organ recital and the exhibition reveals a period in the history of taste which has yet to be fully appreciated. This period of aestheticism coincided with a time of economic expansion extending from the end of one recession in 1895 until the beginning of another in 1930 (thus defining the period of this thesis), both contributing to the commissioning of approximately 250 new pipe organs, of which only forty per cent were imported.

        In a recent attempt to document the history of the pipe organ in the early Middle Ages, the author commented:

One can feel that nothing known about churches... in the year 1000 is irrelevant to the question of how some of them came to have an organ. In turn, that question leads to many others, for organs cannot be understood in isolation. Footnote

The introduction of organs into the Catholic church around that time is of great importance in the history of music for the next few centuries. Contemporary technological and aesthetic contexts of the organ can be established by studying the clock and the liturgy respectively.

        The introduction of organs into the Protestant churches nine centuries later poses the same questions of "why" and "how" they came to be there, and investigation of the cultural and technological contexts of that time contributes to the proposition that these organs were perceived to be a significant synthesis of western aesthetics and technology, and among the more fascinating objectifications of western cultural aspirations.

        One of the problems encountered in attempting to chronicle this latter introduction is not the dearth of material, but the wealth of it. This is alleviated somewhat by the size of the country under investigation in this thesis, making possible the extensive documentation of the organs and their builders, and their introduction into churches.

        The same author has also written a chapter entitled "Contributions to the Nadir of 1890 - 1930," in which he looks at the British organ of this period, but in isolation from its cultural contexts, comparing it instead to the organ of previous centuries, and without coming to any constructive conclusions:

To most musicians, and even by now to many organists, the ripe 'late romantic' organ of 1900 produces an unpleasing sound even when it is playing music written at the time for it. Whether it was that builders cared less about the musical use of their instruments or whether the music itself is poorer than that composed two centuries earlier is impossible to say. Footnote

His attitude in this chapter is one of bewilderment: how did the organ come to be like this, considering the nature of previous instruments? Other negative characteristics attributed to the organ of this, rather than earlier periods, are unresponsive electric actions, detached consoles (assumed to have been devised so that organists could better hear their own playing), nonresonant cases, pipework "voiced by those with less specialised ears," and a transcripted and popular repertoire; other claims include "intense" tone, new kinds of pipework, attempts at orchestral imitation, the dull, dark and sombre environment of "gothick" churches, ignorant organists, and technological development for its own sake. Footnote Words used to describe the "sound produced by the new arrays of eight foot stops" include "solid," "loud," "hard," "jejune," and "emaciated." Similar opinions have been expressed concerning New Zealand organs of the same period.

        Some of these opinions, whether applied to New Zealand or Britain, are correct only to a limited extent: new types of pipework were introduced by a few builders; casework was minimal, but had been so for decades; and the repertoire was debased, but had been increasingly so since the death of Mendelssohn. Other points are more debatable: with regard to New Zealand in particular, some organ builders were practising musicians; organists were often people of taste and education; electric actions were not introduced until the 1920s; some consoles were detached, but for reasons unrelated to the instrument itself; and the tone of surviving organs by such builders as Brake, Jenkins, Hobday and Hathaway often proves charming and delightful.

        Other authors have attempted to consider the organ of the late nineteenth century in its cultural contexts, but have limited those contexts to traditionally accepted models. For example, a recent book charting the history of the organ in England Footnote views the building of pipe organs almost entirely within the confines of Anglicanism, even to the extent of overlooking nonconformist issues when dealing with the Reformation and Commonwealth periods; indeed, in a chapter entitled The High Victorian organ 1860-1900 the introduction of the pipe organ into the nonconformist denominations (one of the most controversial issues in the history of those denominations since the Reformation) is merely treated thus: "Although nonconformist churches had mixed attitudes to the provision of organs, most were quick to accept their use," presenting purely economic reasons for this: "The proliferation of different denominations and the extensive building of churches and chapels, especially in the industrial towns, opened a further significant market for new organs." Only then is Catholicism referred to: "The new freedom enjoyed by Roman Catholics after the Act of Catholic Emancipation in 1829 added to the overall number," Footnote without attempting to estimate that number. This is of course followed by substantial material on "the Anglican world," touching on the Oxford and Cambridge movements, and the choral and Gothic revivals. Footnote While a knowledge of these Establishment issues enables us better to appreciate certain cultural contexts of organ building, we are left uninformed about nonconformist issues. Yet from 1895 to 1930 sixty per cent of organs built in New Zealand were for nonconformist churches, Footnote while less than one-quarter were for Anglican; the respective proportions in England from 1860 to 1900 have yet to be determined.

        This conservative insularity apparent in writings about the organ is not new: it may also be seen in early nineteenth-century Britain in initial attitudes towards continental organ building, in Establishment hostility to historic Gothic architecture, in nonconformist rejection of the pipe organ, in classicist resistance to the music of Wagner, and in the reactionary Oxford movement defence of traditional Anglican theology against the perceived onslaught of German higher criticism. But neither is this insularity universal: it certainly did not apply generally to nineteenth-century secular and nonconformist thought and culture, for it was not to the Establishment that the nonconformists turned for stimulus, but to German transcendentalism.

        What a study of wider cultural context (such as this thesis) reveals, is that nonconformists along with organ builders, writers, musicians and a host of others, in turning their thoughts and footsteps mid-century to Germany for their philosophical and cultural inspiration, developed their own independent cultural system with their own agenda. Although it is now commonly acknowledged that German organ building had a profound influence on English organ building from the 1840s, it is important to point out that Germanic thought and culture had a profound influence on practically every aspect of English thought and culture in the nineteenth century, and it would seem that present-day writers are as apprehensive of acknowledging this influence as their Establishment predecessors were in accepting it.

        Central to understanding the pipe organ of this period is the fact that the contexts in which these organs were built were different from those in which organs had been constructed from mediaeval times to the mid-nineteenth century. Perceptions of music and the organ, and their place in worship, had altered immeasurably due to the shift from classicism to romanticism in the nineteenth century, and it was this shift that formed a new set of contexts for the building of pipe organs. It is therefore not sufficient to study the organs of this period in relation only to previously existing instruments and contexts: the construction of a new set of parameters is required in order to achieve this, which in turn may only be accomplished by a substantial, if not exhaustive, documentation of these instruments and their cultural contexts.

        Parts I and II of this thesis provide the reader with background material sufficient to understand the cultural themes found in the documentations in part V: part I by examining how the shift from classicism to romanticism in philosophy and the arts in Europe and Britain contributed toward the confusion of aesthetics with morality and spirituality, the conception of the Gesamtkunstwerk, and the relationship of aesthetics and utilitarianism, and how these fostered the rise of a form of worship defined here as aesthetic worship, incorporating the pipe organ as a primary element; part II by demonstrating how the themes outlined in part I influenced the development of aesthetic culture and worship in New Zealand, and by examining the roles of participant groups and their influence on the building of pipe organs.

        Part III provides a background to the economic, historical and technological themes found in the documentations, and part IV a biographical and chronological background for each builder and his instruments. Part V itself documents each organ built in New Zealand between 1895 and 1930, and forms an appendix to the whole. Conclusions to parts I, II and III are found at the end of those sections, and while there is no conclusion to part IV, the general conclusion, acknowledgements, references and maps are found at the end of that section.

        Due to the documentary nature of this thesis, it will become apparent that some chapters relating to aesthetic worship contexts are weighted more heavily toward some denominations than others. The Methodists were interested in choirs: their publications contain much material on the subject, while those of other denominations do not, at least to the same extent. The Presbyterians were vexed by the introduction of instrumental music: their manuscript and published sources contain much material on the subject, while those of other denominations contain none. Catholic parishes generated few manuscript sources: nearly all contemporary documentation of their aesthetic worship and organs comes from published sources.

        Further, as the period covered by this thesis sees the culmination of the introduction of the organ into the nonconformist denominations, it is natural that such denominations should receive special attention. As much is already known of the prevailing Anglican and Catholic attitudes and practices in Britain and Europe regarding the organ, the reader will not be burdened with any repetition of standard and readily-available material.

        Some of the biographies and documentations draw more on letters, others on church records; some contain substantially more material than others. The variety and quantity of material in parts IV and V is therefore an indication of the survival of contemporary documents, not of the output of the builders or the significance of their instruments. Although illustrations are included for some instruments, the author has not attempted any systematic iconographic documentation.

        All in all, this thesis provides the reader not only with a complete documentation of the pipe organs built in New Zealand between 1895 and 1930, and a comprehensive exploration of all cultural, historical and technological references found in those documentations, reinforced with extensive background material, Footnote but also a sufficient set of contexts within which the organ of the period generally may be better appreciated. Thus its primary focus is therefore documentary, not purely historical, with only the systematic aural, technical and iconographic documentation of surviving instruments remaining for the construction of a history (these being outside the economic and technical capacities of the author). As such this thesis may be likened to the establishment of the Urtext of a musical work and the outlining of its cultural context, so constituting a basis for further research and informed performance.

 

 

 

ORGAN BUILDING IN NEW ZEALAND

1895 - 1930:

A DOCUMENTATION OF CULTURAL CONTEXT

 

PART I

 

AESTHETIC BACKGROUND IN

EUROPE AND BRITAIN

 

 

CONTENTS

           

CHAPTER                                                                                                                             PAGE

        1.        Romanticism in Germany and Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         21

                            Greek Classical Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          22

                            German Romantic Philosophy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         23

                               (1) Deism 1790-1800 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            24

                               (2) Idealism 1800-1820 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            26

                               (3) Mysticism 1830-1850 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           31

                            Classicism in Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            32

                            Romanticism in Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           34

        2.        Cultural Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            35

                            Gesamtkunstwerk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        35

                            Cultural Developments in Britain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         40

                            Perceptions of the Organ in Literature and the Arts . . . . . .                      43

                            Progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               52

                            Total Aesthetic Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         53

        3.        Aesthetic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                             57

                            The Aesthetic Worship Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       62

                               (1) Gothic Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          66

                               (2) Light and Colour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           72

                               (3) Music . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                               73

                               (4) Aesthetic Priesthood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          74

                               (5) Gesamtkunstwerk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                       76

                            The Aesthetic Worship Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         77

        4.        Denominational Developments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                          85

                            Catholic Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                           85

                            Anglican Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            89

                            Methodist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            91

                            Presbyterian Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            91

                            Baptist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            98

                            Congregationalist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        100

                            Transcendentalist Worship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                        102

                   CONCLUSION TO PART I                                                                                  105

CONCLUSION TO PART I

 

          The shift in European philosophy in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries from objectivity to subjectivity of perception, introduced transcendentalism into western culture, particularly Germany: the exploration of a spiritual world above and beyond the physical universe, the projection of subjective human ideals to the status of absolutes, and the retreat from reality into the subconscious imagination.

          Significant factors of most new systems were the centralising of the arts from the periphery of the classicist world view, the inversion of their classicist hierachy (exchanging the status of words and music), and their spiritualisation. The Romantics universally accepted music as the highest form of art, and the superior vehicle for transcendental experience.

          This fundamental shift in perception enabled Protestant denominations to develop the phenomenon of aesthetic worship, a significant cultural form sharing many commonalities with Wagner's Musikdrama, more particularly Parsifal, in that both contained elements of Catholic worship in a transcendental context. There were of course differences: there was only one Wagner, Bayreuth and Parsifal, but a multitude of organists, sham gothic churches and aesthetic worship services; one was a serious vehicle for high art, the other a popular expression of religious sentiment; yet both forms were essential manifestations of nineteenth-century transcendentalism.

          The response of Catholics and Anglicans to transcendentalism was negative: the former rejecting it by reinforcing classicist directives against orchestral and other inapproriate styles of music, along with a renewed attempt to promote the use of the sacred chant; and the latter by pursuing an anglocentric compromise settlement of aesthetic elements in a Catholic setting. Aesthetic worship is therefore a primary expression of the Protestant move toward transcendentalism, not a secondary derivative of the Anglican move toward Catholicism, and the substantial and previously non-existant demand thereby created for pipe organs cannot be satisfactorily explained from within either of these reactionary contexts.